This page deals with the history of civilisations and their contemporary evolution, initially drawing on Felipe Fernandez Armesto recent classic on the issue: illustrating and discussing it.

As for past and contemporary civilisations, we have a major area of dissent with him: mainly drawing on Sergio Buarque de Hollanda (the great historian, father of Chico) and many other Southern sources (Ki Zerbo on Africa, e.g.), we think that there is no single Atlantic Civilisation, but 4 of them, in a quadrant: NW, NE, SW and SE.

While the 2 Northern (US and EU) between them, and the 2 Southern one as well in couple, have a certain trend of convergence (much stronger in the North), the S\N barrier helds on very strong cultural and structural bases; there is no  communication flow or convergence factor in sight, that might reverse such a Tropical barrier in the near future. Currently, there is a net out-migration from the US to LatAm, which marks a new decoupling of Atlantic N\S civilisations (versus the recoupling of the economies).

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