Justice

aforismi, concetti, definizioni

B

Bertold Brecht:  Ci sedemmo dalla pate del torto, visto che tutti gli altri posti erano occupati

L

Lamont, Julian and Christi Favor (2008)

Distributive Justice

First published Sun Sep 22, 1996; substantive revision Mon Mar 5, 2007
Principles of distributive justice are normative principles designed to guide the allocation of the benefits and burdens of economic activity.
After outlining the scope of this entry and the role of distributive principles, the first relatively simple principle of distributive justice examined is strict egalitarianism, which advocates the allocation of equal material goods to all members of society. John Rawls’ alternative distributive principle, which he calls the Difference Principle, is then examined. The Difference Principle allows allocation that does not conform to strict equality so long as the inequality has the effect that the least advantaged in society are materially better off than they would be under strict equality. However, some have thought that Rawls’ Difference Principle is not sensitive to the responsibility people have for their economic choices. Resource-based distributive principles, and principles based on what people deserve because of their work, endeavor to incorporate this idea of economic responsibility.

Advocates of Welfare-based principles do not believe the primary distributive concern should be material goods and services. They argue that material goods and services have no intrinsic value and are valuable only in so far as they increase welfare. Hence, they argue, the distributive principles should be designed and assessed according to how they affect welfare. Advocates of Libertarian principles, on the other hand, generally criticize any patterned distributive ideal, whether it is welfare or material goods that are the subjects of the pattern. They generally argue that such distributive principles conflict with more important moral demands such as those of liberty or respecting self-ownership. Finally, feminist critiques of existing distributive principles note that they tend to ignore the particular circumstances of women, especially the fact that women often have primary responsibility for child-rearing. Some feminists therefore are developing and/or modifying distributive principles to make them sensitive to the circumstances of women and to the fact that, on average, women spend less of their lifetimes in the market economy than men.

W

Weil, Simone

«II me paraît impossible en tout cas d’imaginer pour l’Europe une renaissance qui ne tienne pas compte des exigences que Simone Weil a définies dans L’Enracinement. C’est toute l’importance de ce livre. En vérité, cette oeuvre tout entière consacrée à la justice, une justice l’attend qui la portera peu à peu à ce premier rang que son auteur refusa obstinément durant sa vie. » (Albert Camus)

REFERENCES

Cohen, G. A. (1995), Self-Ownership, Freedom, and Equality (New York: Cambridge University Press).
Hayek, Friedrich A.  (1960), The Constitution of Liberty (London, Routledge and Kegan Paul).

Hayek, F.A. (1976). The Mirage of Social Justice. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Kirzner, I. (1978), “Entrepreneurship, Entitlement, and Economic Justice,” Eastern Economic Journal 4: 9-25. Reprinted in Vallentyne and Steiner, 2000a.

Lamont, Julian and Christi Favor (2008), “Distributive Justice”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2008 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = <http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2008/entries/justice-distributive/&gt;.

Marxisms: http://www.marx.org/

Nielsen, Kai  (1979), “Radical Egalitarian Justice: Justice as Equality” Social Theory and Practice, 5: 209-226.

Nozick, Robert  (1974), Anarchy, State and Utopia (New York: Basic Books).  Liberty Guide

Otsuka, M. (2003), Libertarianism without Inequality (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

Rawls, John (1971), A Theory of Justice (Harvard, MA: Harvard University Press.

Rawls, John (2001), Justice as Fairness: A Restatement (Cambridge: Harvard University Press). http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/profiles/rawls.htm

Roemer, John E. (1996), Theories of Distributive Justice (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press).

Sen, Amartya (1982), “Equality of What?” in: Sen, Amartya, Choice, Welfare and Measurement (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).

Steiner, H. (1981), Liberty and Equality, Political Studies, 29: 555-569.

Vallentyne, P., and H. Steiner, eds. (2000a), Left Libertarianism and Its Critics: The Contemporary Debate, New York: Palgrave Publishers Ltd.

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